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手工砌筑学校——建筑是改善生活的工具(by Anna Heringer + Eike Roswag)

2015-8-6 09:48| 发布者: 深圳老梁| 查看: 3745| 评论: 20|原作者: QH912

摘要: 本文由E拓建筑网www.eeeetop.com的QH912原创翻译,未经本站与译者书面许可,不得转载。 建筑师Anna Heringer Architects(建筑师): Anna Heringer, Eike RoswagLocation(地点): Rudrapur, Dinajpur dis ...
本文由E拓建筑网www.eeeetop.com的QH912原创翻译,未经本站与译者书面许可,不得转载。


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建筑师Anna Heringer

Architects(建筑师): Anna Heringer, Eike Roswag
Location(地点): Rudrapur, Dinajpur district, Bangladesh 孟加拉国 迪纳杰普尔区 鲁德拉普尔
Architects(建筑事务所): Anna Heringer & Eike Roswag
Structural Engineering(结构工程师): Ziegert
 Roswag
 Seiler
 Architekten 
Ingenieure
 Bürogemeinschaft
Construction(建造师): Dipshikha / METI
 (Modern 
Education
 and
 Trainig
 Institute)
 with
 local 
labourers
 and
 own
 training 
workshop
Footprint Area(占地面积): 275 sqm
Area(用地面积): 325.0 sqm
Project Year(竣工): 2007
Photographs(摄影): Kurt Hoerbst

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From the architect. Context: Bangladesh is a fertile alluvial land in the Gulf of Bengal and the land with the highest population density in the world. On average nearly 1000 people live in every square kilometer and over 80% of the population live in rural areas. Much of the vernacular built tradition uses earth and bamboo as a building material, however, construction techniques are error-prone and many buildings lack foundations and damp proof coursing. Such buildings require regular maintenance, are often prone to damage and last on average only 10 years.
以下内容由建筑事务所提供:孟加拉国位于孟加拉湾的一块肥沃的冲积平原上,是世界上人口密度最高的国家。平均每平方公里居住1000人,且超过80%的人口生活在农村地区。虽然大部分的当地建造传统采用土壤和竹子作为建造材料,但建造技术错误百出,许多建筑缺乏地基和防水层。这样的建筑需要频繁维护且经常遭受损坏,平均使用寿命仅十年。

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Project aims: It is particularly important to improve the quality of living in the rural areas in order to counteract the continuing population migration to the cities. The primary potential for developing building in the rural areas is the low cost of labor and locally available resources such as earth and bamboo.
项目目标:提高农村地区的生活质量对抑制持续的人口城市化现象非常重要。农村地区建筑水平提升的主要潜力在于其廉价劳动力和当地的可用资源,如土壤、竹子等。

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The project’s main strategy is to communicate and develop knowledge and skills within the local population so that they can make the best possible use of their available resources. Historic building techniques are developed and improved and the skills passed on to local tradesmen transforming in the process the image of the building techniques.
此项目的主要策略是在当地民众间传播和提高他们的知识技术水平以使其能高效利用本土资源。以往的建造技术有了提高和改善,传授予当地手艺人的技能也在此过程中发生改变。

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Concept and Design: METI aims to promote individual abilities and interests taking into account the different learning speeds of the schoolchildren and trainees in a free and open form of learning.
概念和设计:METI旨在让学习速度相异的在校学生和受训人员在一种自由开放的学习形式下提高个人能力与兴趣。

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It offers an alternative to the typical frontal approach to lessons. The architecture of the new school reflects this principle and provides different kinds of spaces and uses to support this approach to teaching and learning. On the ground floor with its thick earth walls, three classrooms are located each with their own access opening to an organically shaped system of ‘caves’ to the rear of the classroom. The soft interiors of theses spaces are for touching, for nestling up against, for retreating into for exploration or concentration, on one’s own or in a group.
它为以往典型的教学方式提供了另一种形式。新学校的建筑式样体现了这项原则,并提供了各种各样的空间和功能来支撑这种教学方式。首层的三间厚土墙教室背后都有各自的独立通道,均向有机形状的“洞穴”系统敞开。这些空间柔软的室内为个人或群体提供了一种可触、可居、可休憩、可探索或专心致志的场所。

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The upper floor is by contrast light and open, the openings in its bamboo walls offering sweeping views across the sur- roundings, its large interior providing space for movement. The view expands across the treetops and the village pond. Light and shadows from the bamboo strips play across the earth floor and contrast with the colourful materials of the saris on the ceiling.
建筑上层则截然不同,开敞而明亮。竹墙间隙提供了全方位的广阔视野,宽大的室内为活动提供了充足的场地。视野滑过树梢,越过池塘。竹条交织下的光与影跃动于泥土地面之上,与顶棚上五颜六色的莎丽(印度女子服饰——译注)形成对比。

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Building construction and techniques: The building rests on a 50cm deep brick masonry foundation rendered with a facing cement plaster. Bricks are the most common product of Bangladesh’s building manufacturing industry. Bangladesh has almost no natural reserves of stone and as an alternative the clayey alluvial sand is fired in open circular kilns into bricks. These are used for building or are broken down for use as an aggregate for concrete or as ballast chippings. Imported coal is used to fire the kilns.
建造技术:建筑构筑于50厘米深的砖砌基础之上,粉饰以水泥抹面。砖是孟加拉建筑制造业工厂中最常见的产品。该国天然石材资源匮乏,故代之以黏土冲击砂在环形窑中开窑烧制成砖。砖材用于建造房屋,或将其破碎作为混凝土骨料和铺道渣。进口的煤料则作烧窑之用。

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Aside from the foundation, the damp proof course was the other most fundamental addition to local earthen building skills. The damp proof course is a double layer of locally available PE-film. The ground floor is realized as load-bearing walls using a technique similar to cob walling. A straw-earth mixture with a low straw content was manufactured with the help of cows and water buffalo and then heaped on top of the foundation wall to a height of 65cm per layer. Excess material extending beyond the width of the wall is trimmed off using sharp spades after a few days. After a drying period of about a week the next layer of cob can be applied. In the third and fourth layers the door and window lintels and jambs were integrated as well as a ring beam made of thick bamboo canes as a wall plate for the ceiling.
除地基以外,防潮层是当地夯土建筑技术的另一最基本要素。所谓防潮层,即是由两层当地可获得的聚乙烯薄膜组成。地面层用类似穗秆墙体的技法砌筑作为承重墙。一种低秸秆含量的秸秆土混合物在奶牛和水牛的协助下制备而成,然后将其堆砌于基础墙体之上,每层约65厘米高。材料超出墙宽的多余部分将于数日后用锋利的铲子修剪剔除。约经历一周的干燥后,另一层穗秆方可敷于其上。在三、四层上,门窗过梁和壁柱组合衔接,同时,厚竹条制的环梁交织形成天花板。

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The ceiling of the ground floor is a triple layer of bamboo canes with the central layer arranged perpendicular to the layers above and beneath to provide lateral stabilisation and a connection between the supporting beams. A layer of planking made of split bamboo canes was laid on the central layer and filled with the earthen mixture analogue to the technique often used in the ceilings of European timber-frame constructions.
地面层的天花板由三层竹藤板组成,其中,中间层垂直放置连接上下两层以保证横向稳定和支撑梁之间的连接。一层竹编板置于中间层并填充以土质混合物,这是模仿欧洲木结构建筑的天花常用建造技术。

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The upper storey is a frame construction of four-layer bamboo beams and vertical and diagonal members arranged at right angles to the building. The end of the frames at the short ends of the building and the stair also serve to stiffen the building. These are connected via additional structural members with the upper and lower sides of the main beams and equipped with additional wind bracing on the upper surface of the frame. A series of bamboo rafters at half the interval of the frame construction beneath provide support for the corrugated iron roof construction and are covered with timber panelling and adjusted in height to provide sufficient run-off.
建筑上层由四层竹梁架构而成,垂直构件和对角构件以适宜的角度布置于建筑之上。框架末端简短收尾,楼梯也具有坚固建筑的作用。它们均通过主梁的首末端等附加构件连接,并在框架上表面装配附加风支柱。框架结构下半部分的一系列竹椽为瓦楞铁皮屋面结构提供支撑,屋面覆盖木板并将其调整至合适高度以提供足够的径流。

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Finishes and fittings: The exterior surface of the earth walls remains visible and the window jambs are rendered with a lime plaster. The framework constructon of the green façade to the rear is made of bamboo canes seated in footings made of old well pipe and with split horizontal timbers as latticework. The interior surfaces are plastered with a clay paster and painted with a lime-based paint. The ‘cave’s are made of a straw-earth daub applied to a supporting structure of bamboo canes and plastered with a red earth plaster. The upper storey façades are clad with window frames covered with bamboo strips and coupling elements hung onto the columns of the frame construction. A fifth layer of cob walling provides a parapet around the upper storey forming a bench running around the perimeter of the building and anchoring the upper storey frame construction and roof against wind from beneath. A textile ceiling is hung beneath the roof is lit from behind in the evening. The cavity behind the textiles ventilates the roof space.
饰面与配件:土墙外表面仍然可视,窗框用石膏线粉饰。背面的绿色框架结构由竹条制成,固定在由旧井管改制而成的基座上,并伴以水平分割的木材作为格栅。室内墙面铺粘黏土贴纸,尔后涂刷石灰涂料。“洞穴”则以竹条为支撑结构,外敷秸秆土混合涂料,再粉饰以红色石膏。建筑上层外表面贴附着窗框,窗框由竹条和连接构件组成,挂置在框架结构的立柱上。五分之一的穗秆墙体作为建筑上层护墙并绕其形成周圈台面,锚定上层框架结构及屋顶以抵抗风荷载的作用。一层织物天花板悬挂于屋顶之下,夜幕降临时,灯光从后面将其照亮。织物背后的空洞使屋顶通风。

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Onsite labor using and training the local workforce: The masonry foundation was constructed by a company from the regional capital Dinajpur around 20km from Rudrapur. The earth building works and bamboo construction was undertaken by local labourers. The building techniques were implemented and developed on the job together with architects and tradesmen from Germany and Austria. 25 local tradesmen from the vicinity were trained during the building works creating new jobs and providing professional “help for self-help”.
现场劳动和当地劳动力培训:此砖石基础是由距离鲁德拉普尔约20公里的地区首府迪纳杰普尔的一家公司建造的,夯土作业及竹材架构均由当地劳工完成,建造技术则是由来自德国和奥地利的建筑师合作研讨实施和改善的。25位附近的商人在建造过程中接受培训,进而创造了新的工作并提供了专业的“自助”。

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Exemplary nature, transferability, follow-on projects: School handmade showcases the potential of good planning and design, from the arrangement of the building on the site to the realization of aspects in detail. Furthermore it demonstrates the possibilities of building with earth and bamboo using simple methods as the continuation of a local rural building tradition and can serve as an example for future building developments in the area.
示范性、通用性、后续项目:“手工砌筑学校”从建筑场域布置到各方面细节的实现都展现了优秀方案和设计的潜力。此外,它证明了通过延续本土建造传统的简单方法也能实现用泥土和竹子修筑房屋,还为该地区未来的房屋建造提供范例。

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A stable foundation and a damp proof course are the primary technical prerequisites for building with earth, making the buildings last longer and reducing maintenance requirements. For smaller room spans, the newly developed bamboo ceiling construction can be made entirely out of local materials using handmade jute rope and bamboo dowelling.
稳固的基础和防潮层是土筑建筑建造、延长使用寿命和减少维护需要的首要技术前提。对于较小的房间跨度,新开发的竹制天花板结构可完全使用当地的手工黄麻绳和竹销钉建成。

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METI, Modern Education and Training Institute: METI enables children and young people in the region to take classes up to the age of 14 and provides workshops for trade-oriented professions. The idea is to provide the rural population with access to good, holistically-oriented education. The children and young people are encouraged to develop into responsible, motivated and creative personalities and to use their skills to improve and develop their immediate rural environment. Reading, writing and arithmetic as well as languages are offered in a free environment and through open forms of learning. Meditation, dance and creative writing are part of everyday learning at the METI School as are discussions, learning as part of a group and self-critical and social behavior.
MEIT(现代教育培训机构):MEIT使该地区的儿童和年轻人能接受教育至14岁,并为贸易行业提供工作室。这个想法是为当地人口提供良好而完整的受教育机会,鼓励儿童和年轻人成为一个有责任感、进取心和创造力的人,并用他们的技能来提升和改善当地现状。在自由的环境中通过开放的学习形式进行阅读、写作、运算及语言教学。冥思、舞蹈和创造性写作是MEIT学校日常学习的一部分,正如讨论和学习也是小组活动、自我评判和社会行为中的一部分一样。

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Dipshikha, Bangladesh: Dipshikha is an NGO dedicated to supporting development in the particularly poor regions of northern Bangladesh and has been active in this area for nearly 25 years. Paul Tigga, director of Dipshikha explains that the aim is to open up possibilities in the villages to make people aware of the potential at home in an attempt to strengthen the region and reduce outward migration to the cities.
孟加拉国Dipshikha:Dipshikha是一个非政府组织(NGO,非政府组织,Non-Governmental Organizations的缩写——译注),致力于支持北孟加拉特困地区的发展,已在此区域活跃了25年。Dipshikha的董事Paul Tigga解释,他们的目标是通过在这些村落中创造一些可能,使人们意识到其家乡的潜力所在,从而尝试增强地区实力并降低城市化移民数量。

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Shanti e.V. has been the German partner for Dipshikha since its foundation and supports the financing, planning and implementation of development and educational work. A central aspect of their work is the implementation of integrated village development programmes for education, health, strengthening the position of women in society, nutrition, agricul- ture and trade skills. Shanti also provides support in emergency situations and exchange and volunteer programmes. The PMK has supported METI for many years and was a partner for the school building together with Shanti and Dipshikha.
Shanti协会(e.V.是德语eingetragener Verein 的缩写,意为“注册协会”——译注)自Dipshikha建立以来就作为其德国合伙人存在,并为其提供经济、计划及发展和教育工作等方面的支持。他们工作的中心内容是实施综合农村发展方案,该方案涉及教育、健康、巩固女性社会地位、营养、农业和贸易技能。Shanti也为紧急情况、交易,以及志愿者计划提供支持。PMK(一家主要生产探测器的德国公司——译注)已支持MEIT多年,作为合作伙伴与Shanti和Dipshikha一起进行学校建设。

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原文标题:Handmade School / Anna Heringer + Eike Roswag




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最新评论

引用 多多咯 2015-8-4 20:40
就喜欢这种原生态的
引用 布加迪爆缸 2015-8-4 20:55
看看学习一下
引用 seatea 2015-8-5 01:17
很有启发!!!!!!!!!!!!!
引用 jjc10404 2015-8-5 08:52
立足于此时此地,直面社会问题
引用 oldchen168 2015-8-5 09:19
建筑不一定就是高大上,结合实际而美丽的建筑会让更多人普通受益。
引用 可爱的汤圆 2015-8-5 09:23
很自然的风味,很实际的美丽
引用 窗里窗外 2015-8-5 10:38
挺有味道的
引用 淡四夜末 2015-8-5 11:30
感觉这才是当代建筑师需要去解决的问题
引用 ljy20100909 2015-8-6 12:08
挺有意思的建筑,还环保。
引用 韩博云 2015-8-6 20:34
好帅,学到了
引用 lxweno 2015-8-7 10:39
真好,学习了
引用 wendy 2015-8-7 14:28
感谢翻译和分享~~
引用 雨中人321 2015-8-11 17:24
这才是建筑学存在的真正意义
引用 happy的sb 2015-8-12 12:47
里面洞很好玩
引用 想飞没翅膀 2015-9-1 10:41
为人服务的建筑师是有意义的存在
引用 都是当老大的人 2015-9-1 16:09
这个真心不错
引用 wenhuaxungen2 2015-9-26 13:55
建筑理应是符合我们日常生活习惯、建造习惯和当地气候的事物
引用 sunyuanshuai 2016-2-27 00:04
向这样的建筑师致敬
引用 梅de吉光片羽 2016-6-20 10:11
喜欢这样有意义的建筑,不花俏,不做作~敬伟大的设计师~

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